Paul Brunet, Tobias Kappé, Alexandra Silva, and Fabio Zanasi.
Concurrent Kleene Algebra (CKA) was introduced by Hoare, Moeller, Struth and Wehrman in 2009 as a framework to reason about concurrent programs. We prove that the semantics proposed in the original paper is the free model of CKA with bounded parallel iteration, meaning the completeness of these axioms. This result settles a conjecture of Hoare and collaborators. Moreover, it allows us to establish a Kleene Theorem for CKA, extending an earlier Kleene Theorem for a fragment of CKA.
Paul Brunet, Damien Pous and Georg Struth.
Concurrent Kleene algebras support equational reasoning about computing systems with concurrent behaviours. Their natural semantics is given by series(-parallel) rational pomset languages, a standard true concurrency semantics, which is often associated with processes of Petri nets. We use constructions on Petri nets to provide two decision procedures for such pomset languages motivated by the equational and the refinement theory of concurrent Kleene algebra. The contribution to the first problem lies in a much simpler algorithm and an ExpSpace complexity bound. Decidability of the second, more interesting problem is new and, in fact, ExpSpace-complete.
Paul Brunet, Tobias Kappé, Bas Luttik, Alexandra Silva, and Fabio Zanasi.
Concurrent Kleene Algebra (CKA) is a mathematical formalism to study programs that exhibit concurrent behaviour. As with previous extensions of Kleene Algebra, characterizing the free model is crucial in order to develop the foundations of the theory and potential applications. For CKA, this has been an open question for a few years and this paper makes an important step towards an answer. We present a new automaton model and a Kleene-like theorem for pomset languages, which are a natural candidate for the free model. There are two substantial differences with previous work: from expressions to automata, we use Brzozowski derivatives, which enable a direct construction of the automaton; from automata to expressions, we provide a syntactic characterization of the automata that denote valid CKA behaviours.